How do you characterize sounds? Amplitude Intensity Frequency Wavelength How are sounds made?
What happens when sound pressures are large? Sound Movement How fast does sound travel? Why does sound get weaker as it travels? Sound Spreading Sound Absorption How does sound move? Reflection Refraction Scattering How does sound travel long distances? Sound Measurement How is sound measured? What units are used to measure sound?
How are sounds viewed and analyzed? How is hearing measured? What sounds can people hear?
What sounds can animals hear? Sounds in the Sea What are common underwater sounds? How does sound in air differ from sound in water? How do people and animals use sound in the sea? Sonar Echolocation Why do sounds have certain properties? How will ocean acidification affect ocean sound levels?
lifenleza.tk How does marine life affect ocean sound levels? How does shipping affect ocean sound levels? Advanced Topics What is intensity? Spherical Spreading Propagation from a sound source array in the near field and far field Wave Front Propagation How does sound travel in shallow water? Use of Sound How do marine animals use sound? Marine Mammal Communication Individual-specific Vocalizations Group-specific Vocalizations Vocalizations Associated with Reproduction Sounds Associated with Aggression Marine fish communication Marine invertebrate communication Marine mammals feeding Marine fish and invertebrates feeding Marine mammal navigation Sound Production How do marine mammals produce sounds?
How do fish produce sounds? How do marine invertebrates produce sounds? Sound Reception How do marine mammals hear?
How do aquatic birds hear? How do fish hear? How do marine invertebrates detect sounds?
How did odontocete hearing evolve? How is sound used to measure water depth? How is sound used to find objects on the ocean bottom? Fishing How is sound used to locate fish? How is sound used to identify fish? Communications How is sound used to communicate underwater? How is sounds used to transmit data underwater? Research Ocean Physics How is sound used to measure temperature in the ocean? How is sound used to measure global climate change?
How is sound used to measure currents in the ocean? How is sound used to measure waves in the surf zone? How is sound used to measure the upper ocean? How is sound used to help make long-term measurements of the ocean? How is sound used to explore for oil and gas? How is sound used to measure, detect, and track oil? How is sound used to study undersea earthquakes?
How is sound used to study underwater volcanoes? How is sound used to map the seafloor?
And in the Sea of Cortez, the focus of its attention is Dosidicus gigas , the jumbo squid. I tell him I have not. Apparently, I am not worth talking to until I have read it. My edition of Moby-Dick has pages, but for Gilly, the rest of the book might as well not exist.
Gilly, a biologist at Stanford University, studies the jumbo squid. They can swim more than miles a week and recently have expanded their range. Native to subtropical waters, they were caught in by fishermen as far north as Alaska. There may be a couple of reasons for this. One is that climate change has altered the oxygen levels in parts of the ocean. Also, many top predators, like tuna, have been heavily fished, and squid may be replacing them, preying on fish, crustaceans and other squid.
No one knows the consequences of this great sea-grab, which extends not just to Alaska, but apparently to other corners of the ocean.
Whale sounds are used by whales for different kinds of communication. The mechanisms used . Baleen whales (formally called mysticetes) do not have phonic lip structure. Instead, they have a larynx that appears to play a role in sound. Whale vocalizations are the sounds made by whales to communicate. The word " song" is used All blue whale groups make calls at a fundamental frequency of between 10 and 40 Hz, and the lowest frequency sound a human can typically.
The nonfictional relationship between sperm whales and squid is pretty dramatic also. A single sperm whale can eat more than one ton of squid per day. They do eat giant squid on occasion, but most of what sperm whales pursue is relatively small and overmatched. With their clicks, sperm whales can detect a squid less than a foot long more than a mile away, and schools of squid from even farther away. But the way that sperm whales find squid was until recently a puzzle.
The whale searches with usual clicks and gives a quick creeeeeek! The mobile band of life was named the deep scattering layer, or DSL, for the way that it scattered sound waves. Acoustic survey in fishing Acoustic tag Animal echolocation Beached whale Deep scattering layer Fishfinder Fisheries acoustics Hearing range of marine mammals Marine mammals and sonar Whale song. And if grunts and bloops turn you on, check out David Rothenberg's collection of the best whale song recordings of the past thirty years. Feeding calls produced by solitary humpback whales.
At sea, it hangs under a boat and sends out waves of sound at four different frequencies. Each organism has a different acoustic signature, and she can often figure out what sort of creature the waves are bouncing off of. To do so requires a certain interpretive knack. Once, in the Bering Sea, her boat came upon a flock of thick-billed murres, diving seabirds, as they were feeding. The acoustics showed a series of thin, vertical lines in the water. What did they represent? Murres pursue their prey by flying underwater, sometimes to great depths. Benoit-Bird figured out that the lines were columns of tiny bubbles the murres expelled when their feathers compressed as they dove.
To understand sperm whale sound, she had to first establish how the whales use their clicks to find squid. But she thought it unlikely that the whales would spend so much time and energy—diving hundreds or thousands of feet, clicking all the way down—only to grope blindly in the dark. In a test, Benoit-Bird, Gilly and colleagues tethered a live jumbo squid a few feet under their boat to see if the echo sounders could detect it.
They found that squid make fabulous acoustic targets. Toothy suckers cover their arms; the beak is hard and sharp; and the pen, a feather-shaped structure, supports the head. Benoit-Bird was thrilled.